To list all terms connected with the graphic arts would fill a book. Many would be too technical and of little value. In this section only the most common terms used in graphic arts production and the new technologies are defined:
In paper, the property which causes it to take up liquids or vapors in contact with it. In optics, the partial suppression of light through a transparent or translucent material.
In binding, a term used for two or more parallel folds which open like an accordion.
AGAINST THE GRAIN
Folding or feeding paper at right angles to the grain direction of the paper.
Paper made with a synthetic alkaline size and an alkaline filler like calcium carbonate which gives the paper over four times the life (200 years) of acid-sized papers (40-50 years).
ANTI-OFFSET OR SET-OFF SPRAY
In printing, dry spray of finely powdered starch used on press to prevent wet ink from transferring from the top of one sheet to the bottom of the next sheet.
A term describing the surface, usually on book and cover papers, that has a natural rough finish.
An illustration copy used in preparing a job for printing.
That part of a lower case letter which rises above the main body, as in "b".
Machine to automatically develop, fix, wash and dry exposed photographic film. In platemaking, machine to develop, rinse, gum and dry printing plates.
The back of a bound book connecting the two covers; also called spine.
Printing the reverse side of a sheet already printed on one side.
In composition, starting a page or ending a paragraph with a single word, or widow.
In inches, 25" x 38" for book papers, 20" x 26" for cover papers, 22-1/2" x 28-1/2" or 22-1/2" x 35" for bristols, 17" x 22" for bond.
The weight in pounds of a ream (500 sheets) of paper cut to a given standard size for that grade; e.g., 500 sheets, 25" x 38" of 50-lb. book paper weighs fifty pounds.
BITMAP (OR BITMAP GRAPHIC)
Any visual matter containing pixels that has a bit depth of one. In other words, the pixel is either 100 percent black or 100 percent white.
Originals or reproductions in single colour, as distinguished from multicolour.
In offset printing, a rubber-surfaced fabric which is clamped around a cylinder, to which the image is transferred from the plate, and from which it is transferred to the paper.
An extra amount of printed image which extends beyond the trim edge of the sheet or page.
A design which is stamped into the paper without metallic leaf or ink.
A photographic enlargement.
A type used for the main part or text of a printed piece, as distinguished from the heading.
A name given to type that is heavier than the text type with which it is used.
A grade of writing or printing paper where strength, durability and permanence are essential requirements; used for letterheads, business forms, etc. The basic size is 17"x22".
A general term for coated and uncoated papers. The basic size is 25"x38".
In photography, light reflected by the copy. In paper, the reflectance or brilliance of the paper.
In platemaking, a common term used for a plate exposure.
The thickness of paper, usually expressed in thousandths of an inch or mils.
CAPS AND SMALL CAPS
Two sizes of capital letters made in one size of type, commonly used in most roman type faces.
In bookbinding, the covers of a hardbound book.
Coated paper dried under pressure against a polished cylinder to produce a high-gloss enamel finishing.
Acronym for Compact Disc-Read Only Memory. A CD-ROM drive uses the CD format as a computer storage medium.
In photography and platemaking, a term used to describe the composition of processing solutions.
CHOKES AND SPREADS
Overlap of overprinting images to avoid colour or white fringes or borders around image detail. Called trapping in digital imaging systems.
Acronym for Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Black — subtractive primary colours. Printing colours for process reproduction. The four process colours used in full colour offset printing. Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, and Black inks are used to create a wide gamut of other colours.
Paper having a surface coating which produces a smooth finish. Surfaces include matte, dull, and gloss.
In platemaking, the light-sensitive polymer or mixture applied to a metal plate. In printing, an emulsion, varnish or lacquer applied over a printed surface to protect it.
In binding, the gathering of sheets or signatures.
The correct combination of cyan, magenta, yellow and black to (1) reproduce a photograph without a colour cast, (2) produce a neutral gray, or (3) reproduce the colours in the original scene or object.
Any method such as masking, dot-etching, re-etching and scanning, used to improve colour rendition.
See off-press proofs.
In photography, the process of separating colour originals into the primary printing colour components in negative or positive form.
An all-inclusive term for the use of computers to automatically perform the functions of hyphenation, justification and page formatting.
A narrow or slender type face.
A property of fountain solutions that must be controlled along with pH.
A photographic print made from a negative or positive in contact with sensitized paper, film or plate.
A photographic image which contains gradient tones from black to white.
The tonal gradation between the highlights, middle tones and shadows in an original or reproduction.
In photography, Any furnished material (typewritten manuscript, pictures, artwork etc.) to be used in the production of printing.
Directions for, and checking of, desired size and other details for illustrations, and the arrangement into proper position of various parts of the page to be photographed or electronically processed for reproduction.
A term applied to a variety of papers used for the covers of catalogues, brochures, booklets and similar pieces.
To eliminate portions of the copy, usually on a photograph, indicated on the original by cropmarks.
In paper, the direction across the grain. Paper is weaker and more sensitive to changes in relative humidity in the cross direction than the grain direction.
See register marks.
In paper, the distortion of a sheet due to differences in structure or coatings from one side to the other, or to absorption of moisture on an offset press.
Hue of a subtractive primary and a 4-colour process ink. It reflects or transmits blue and green light and absorbs red light.
In lithography, cloth-covered, parchment paper or rubber (bare back) rollers that distribute the dampening solution to the press plate or ink roller.
In lithography, the mechanism on a press for transferring dampening solution to the plate during printing.
In papermaking, the width of the wet sheet as it comes off the wire of a paper machine.
The untrimmed feathery edges of paper formed where the pulp flows against the deckle.
The degree of darkness (light absorption or opacity) of a photographic image.
That part of a lower case letter which extends below the main body, as in "p".
In photography, the chemical agent and process used to render photographic images visible after exposure to light. In lithographic platemaking, the material used to remove the unexposed coating.
In photography, a non-silver coating for contact printing. In offset platemaking, a light-sensitive coating used on presensitized and wipe-on plates.
The process of using sharp steel rules to cut special shapes for labels, boxes and containers, from printed sheets. Die-cutting can be done on either flatbed or rotary presses.
DIGITAL COLOUR PROOF
An off-press colour proof produced from digital data without the need for separation films.
Printing by plateless imaging systems that are imaged by digital data from prepress systems.
In printing, a defect in which dots print larger than they should, causing darker tones or stronger colours.
DOTS PER INCH (DPI)
A measure of the resolution of a screen image or printed page. Spots per inch (spi) is a more appropriate term.
A preliminary layout showing the position of illustrations and text as they are to appear in the final reproduction. A set of blank pages made up in advance to show the size, shape, form and general style of a piece of printing.
In photomechanics, a term for a two-colour halftone reproduction from a one-colour photograph.
Paper with a different colour or finish on each side.
ELECTRONIC DOT GENERATION (EDG)
A method of producing halftones electronically on scanners and prepress systems.
Any technology that reproduces pages without the use of traditional ink, water or chemistry.
Plates for high speed laser printing using zinc oxide or organic photoconductors.
In halftone photography, elongated dots which give improved gradation of tones particularly in middle tones and vignettes - also called chain dots.
Paper with a raised or depressed surface resembling wood, cloth, leather or other patterns.
Impressing an image in relief to achieve a raised surface; either overprinting or on blank paper (called blind embossing).
In photography, the side of the film coated with the silver halide emulsion.
EPS (ENCAPSULATED POSTSCRIPT FILE)
An alternative picture file format that allows PostScript data to be stored and edited and is easy to transfer between Macintosh, MS-DOS and other systems.
In photoengraving, to produce an image on a plate by chemical or electrolytic action. In offset lithography, acidified gum solution used to desensitize the non-printing areas of the plate; also, an acid solution added to the fountain water to help keep non-printing areas of the plate free from ink.
The step in photographic processes during which light produces the image on the light-sensitive coating.
A type whose width is greater than normal.
In printing, distortion of paper on the press due to waviness in the paper caused by absorption of moisture at the edges of the paper, particularly across the grain.
In printing presses, the section that separates the sheets and feeds them in position for printing.
The smoother side of the paper for printing. The top side of the sheet in paper manufacturing.
FILLING IN (OR FILLING UP)
In letterpress or offset lithography, a condition where ink fills the area between the halftone dots or plugs up (fills in) the type.
In offset lithography, the assembled composite of negatives on goldenrod paper or positives on film, ready for platemaking. Also, a photograph or halftone that is lacking in contrast.
A device that scans images in a manner similar to a photocopy machine; the original art is positioned face down on a glass plate.
A cover that has been trimmed the same size as the inside text pages.
FLUSH LEFT (OR RIGHT)
In composition, type set to line up at the left (or right).
A paragraph with no indention.
The page number.
In composition, a complete assortment of letters, numbers, punctuation marks, etc. of a given size and design.
In offset, the assembly of pages and other images for printing.
The rollers, either inking or dampening, which directly contact the plate on a printing press.
The size, style, type page, margins, printing requirements etc., of a printed piece.
In lithography, a solution of water, a natural or synthetic gum and other chemicals used to dampen the plate and keep non-printing areas from accepting ink.
For Position Only - a low resolution image positioned in a document to be replaced later with a higher resolution version of the same image.
FRONT END SYSTEM
In electronic publishing, the workstation or group of workstations containing the applications software for preparing pages of type and graphics.
A proof of text copy before being made into pages.
In binding, the assembling of folded signatures in proper sequence.
In papermaking, the direction in which most fibers lie which corresponds with the direction the paper is made on a paper machine.
Any visual matter—such as an illustration, photograph, symbol, etc.—included on a page or within a document.
A strip of standard gray tones, ranging from white to black, placed at the side of original copy during photography to measure tonal range and contrast (gamma) obtained.
The leading edge of paper as it passes through a printing press. Also, the front edge of a lithographic or wraparound plate that is secured to the front clamp of the plate cylinder.
Unprintable blank edge of paper on which grippers bear, usually 1/2" or less.
In sheetfed printing presses, metal fingers that clamp on paper and control its flow as it passes through.
In offset lithography, used in platemaking and on press to desensitize the non-printing areas of plates.
In platemaking, the process of applying a thin coating of gum to the non-printing areas of plates.
The blank space or inner margin from printing area to binding.
The reproduction of continuous-tone images, through a screening process, which converts the image into dots of various sizes with equal spacing between centres.
The permanent visual record of the output of a computer or printer. Also, the material sent to a typesetter in typed form, for conversion into typeset material.
Computer and peripherals as distinguished from software which is a program for operating hardware.
The white space above the first line on a page.
In offset lithography, spots or imperfections in the printing due to dirt on the press, dried ink skin, paper particles, etc.
The lightest or whitest parts in a photograph represented in halftone reproduction by the smallest dots or the absence of dots.
In colour, the main attribute of a colour which distinguishes it from other colours.
In computer imaging, a device that outputs type, line art and photos in position.
Positioning of pages on a signature so that after printing, folding and cutting, all pages will appear in the proper sequence.
In printing, the cylinder on a printing press against which the paper picks up the impression from the inked plate in direct printing, or the blanket in offset printing.
In printing, the cylinder on a printing press against which the paper picks up the impression from the inked plated in direct printing, or the blanket in offset printing.
In printing presses, the device which stores and supplies ink to the inking rollers.
A printed piece prepared for insertion into a publication or another printed piece.
The style of letters that slant, in distinction from upright, or roman, letters. Used for emphasis within the text.
To align sheets of paper into a compact pile.
In composition, to space out lines uniformly to the correct length.
In typesetting, subtracting space between two characters, making them closer together.
The input device to input information directly into a typesetter, computer, workstation or, as a stand-alone unit, to record it on paper or magnetic tape.
In artwork, an outline drawing of finished art to indicate the exact shape, position and size for such elements as halftones, line sketches, etc.
A paper or board containing unbleached wood pulp (brown in colour) made by the sulfate process.
A publication or illustration of greater width than height. Opposite of portrait orientation.
Paper with a pattern of parallel lines at equal distances, giving a ribbed effect.
A plastic film bonded by heat and pressure to a printed sheet for protection or appearance.
The drawing or sketch of a proposed printed piece.
In composition, rows of dashes or dots to guide the eye across the page. Used in tabular work, programs, tables of contents, etc.
A grade of business paper generally used for keeping records where it is subjected to appreciable wear so it requires a high degree of durability and permanence.
The placing of additional space between each letter of a word.
Any copy suitable for reproduction without using a halftone screen.
LOGOTYPE (OR LOGO)
The name of a company or product in a special design used as a trademark in advertising.
The small letters in type, as distinguished from the capital letters.
Abbreviation for a quantity of 1000 sheets of paper.
Paper which is coated one or two sides on a paper machine.
Hue of a subtractive primary and a 4-colour process ink. It reflects or transmits blue and red light and absorbs green light.
Any disc, film, tape, drum or core that is used to store digital information.
In printing, all work done to set up a press for printing.
In composition, the arrangement of lines of type and illustrations into sections or pages of proper length.
In colour separation photography, an intermediate photographic negative or positive used in colour correction.
A plate for a duplicating machine.
Dull paper finish without gloss or luster.
In composition, the width of type, usually expressed in picas.
In papermaking, groundwood pulp produced by mechanically grinding logs or wood chips. It is used mainly for newsprint and as an ingredient of base stock for lower grade publication papers.
In electronic publishing, a method for selecting alternative functions displayed as a list on a workstation screen. Selection via mouse, key or sequence of keys.
In lithography, a plate used for long runs in which the printing image base is usually copper and the non-printing area is aluminum, stainless steel or chromium.
A device that converts computer data into high-frequency signals or vice versa, for transmission over phone lines.
A video screen on a workstation.
In artwork, several photographs combined to form a composite illustration.
The spotty or uneven appearance of printing, mostly in solid areas.
A hand-held device that moves the cursor on a workstation by moving the device on a flat surface.
The original program, or application used to create a document.
In photography, film containing an image in which the values of the original are reversed so that the dark areas appear light and vice versa. (See positive.)
Paper made mostly from groundwood pulp and small amounts of chemical pulp; used for printing newspapers.
An electronic device like a copier, laser or ink jet printer that creates images on a surface without contacting it.
Proofs made by photomechanical or digital means in less time and at lower cost than press proofs.
See setoff. In printing, the process of using an intermediate blanket cylinder to transfer an image from the image carrier to the substrate. Short for offset lithography.
The property of paper that minimizes or prevents the passage of light through the sheet. This term is often used in reference to the amount of "show-through" - when printed areas on the reverse or adjoining page can be observed. Less show-through will occur on papers with high opacity.
In paper, the property which makes it less transparent.
A cover larger in size than the pages it encloses.
In artwork, a transparent covering over the copy where colour break, instructions or corrections are marked. Also transparent or translucent prints which, when placed one on the other form a composite picture.
An off-press colour proof produced with four dyed or pigmented overlay films.
Double printing; printing over an area that already has been printed.
In printing, copies printed in excess of the specified quantity.
In printing presses, paper used to underlay the image or impression cylinder in letterpress, or the plate or blanket in lithography, to get proper squeeze or pressure for printing.
Assembly of all elements to make up a page. In computerized typesetting, the electronic assembly of page elements to compose a complete page with all elements in place on a video display terminal and on film or plate.
In computerized typesetting, the process of performing page makeup automatically.
The collection of colours or shades available to a graphic system or program.
A paper printing plate used on an offset duplicator. The image is made by hand drawing typewriter or electrophotography.
In inkmaking, a type of drier, usually a combination of drying compounds.
A printing press that prints both sides of the paper in one pass through the press.
In photography, A number used for expressing the acidity or alkalinity of solutions. A value of 7 is neutral in a scale ranging from 0 to 14. Solutions with values below 7 are acid, above 7 are alkaline.
Pertaining to any platemaking process using photographic negatives or positives exposed onto plates or cylinder covered with photosensitive coatings.
The method of setting type photographically.
Printer's unit of measurement used principally in typesetting. One pica equals approximately 1/6 of an inch.
The lifting of the paper surface during printing. It occurs when pulling force (tack) of ink is greater than surface strength of paper.
A standard data format in which most Macintosh illustrations are encoded.
In printing inks, the fine solid particles used to give colour, transparency or opacity.
In printing, the building up or caking of ink on rollers, plate or blanket, will not transfer readily. Also, the accumulation of paper dust or coating on the blanket of an offset press.
The use of accurately positioned holes and special pins on copy, film, plates and presses to insure proper register or fit of colours.
In electronic imaging, a basis unit of digital imaging.
The cylinder of a press on which the plate is mounted.
Printer's unit of measurement, used principally for designating type sizes. There are 12 points to a pica, approximately 72 points to an inch.
In photography, film containing an image in which the dark and light values are the same as the original. The reverse of negative.
A computer description language that allows a programmer to create complex pages using a series of commands.
Any software program that translates statements written in the PostScript page-description language. Sometimes called a PostScript clone.
PostScript fonts are based on the Adobe PostScript language. Type one fonts are the most commonly used postscript font. Postscript fonts are comprised of two parts. A screen font, which uses bitmap information, for on-screen display, and a font outline information file which is sent to the printer. Both of the .pfm and .pfb files must be sent to the commercial printer for the font to be used.
In digital prepress, evaluating submitted files before entering production. To verify that all document items are present, accounted for, properly formatted, and available for collection to output to film. Checked for layout files, linked image files, screen fonts, printer fonts, EPS or TIFF files, etc.
See off-set proofs.
In photomechanics, a metal or paper plate that has been precoated with a light-sensitive coating.
In colour reproduction, a proof of a colour subject made on a printing press in advance of the production run.
Material with an adhesive coating, protected by a backing sheet until used.
PRINT DRIVER (PPD)
PostScript Printer Description. Software that allows your computer to talk to our printer when outputting submitted files.
A term describing the visual impression of a printed piece. In paper, the properties of the paper that affect its appearance and the quality of reproduction.
A friendly printing company that looks forward to helping you with all your printing needs.
In printing, the subtractive primaries, yellow, magenta and cyan, plus black in four-colour process printing.
The printing from a series of two or more halftone plates to produce intermediate colours and shades.
In computers, sequence of instructions for a computer. Same as software.
In typesetting, type that is justified on the right margin and ragged on the left.
In photography, type that is justified on the left margin and ragged on the right.
RASTERIZED GRAPHICS (RASTER DATA)
The information used to represent a computer image as a grid of pixels. Rasterized graphics are made up of rows of pixels, so any change in size of the picture or graphic itself results in a change of pixel size as well. Typical file formats include tiffs and jpegs.
RASTER IMAGE PROCESSOR (RIP)
In computer imaging, the computerized process that results in an electronic bit map which indicates every spot position on a page in preparation for an actual printout.
Five hundred sheets of paper.
In printing inks, varnishes, solvents, oily or greasy compounds used to reduce the consistency for printing. In photography, chemicals used to reduce the density of negative or positive images or the size of halftone dots (dot etching).
In printing, fitting of two or more printing images in exact alignment with each other.
Crosses or other targets applied to original copy prior to photography. Used for positioning films in register, or for register of two or more colours in process printing.
RELATIVE HUMIDITY (RH)
The amount of water vapor present in the atmosphere expressed as a percentage of the maximum that could be present at the same temperature.
Copying and duplicating.
In electronic imaging, the quantification of printout quality using the number of spots per inch.
Backwards integration of advanced capability into a device or program not originally intended for that purpose.
Red, Green, Blue - additive primary colours. Term used for the red, green, and blue signals produced by a computer monitor.
In binding, a term used for two or more folds that are at 90° angles to each other.
In printing, an ink that has reached maximum dryness and does not mar with normal abrasion.
The term describing type set to fit around a picture or other element of the design.
Paper properties that affect the ability of the paper to run on the press.
A headline or title repeated at the top of each page.
SADDLE STITCH (OR SADDLE WIRE)
In binding, to fasten a booklet by wiring it through the middle fold of the sheets.
Determining the proper size of an image to be reduced or enlarged to fit an area.
An electronic device used in the making of colour-corrected and tone-corrected separations of images.
To impress or indent a mark with a string or rule in the paper to make folding easier.
In colour reproduction, angles at which the halftone screens are placed with relation to one another, to avoid undesirable moiré patterns. A set of angles often used is: black 45°, magenta 75°, yellow 90°, cyan 105°.
The number of lines or dots per inch on a halftone screen.
In offset lithography, a film of ink printing in the non-image areas of a plate where it should not print.
A cover of the same paper as inside text pages.
The short cross-lines at the ends of the main strokes of many letters in some type faces.
When the ink of a printed sheet rubs off or marks the next sheet. (In presswork: as the printed sheet is being delivered. In bindery: from clamp pressure when cutting the printed sheets.)
In photography, To decrease in colour strength, as when halftone dots become smaller, opposite of dot spread or dot gain.
To print one side of a sheet of paper with one plate, then turn the sheet over and print the other side with another plate using same gripper and opposite side guide.
In printing, the undesirable condition in which the printing on the reverse side of a sheet can be seen through the sheet under normal lighting conditions.
In sheetfed presses, a guide on the feed board to position the sheet sideways as it feeds into the front guides before entering the impression cylinder.
In binding, to wire the sheets or signatures of a magazine or booklet on the side near the backbone.
In printing and binding, the name given to a printed sheet after it has been folded
A platform support for a pile of cut sheets of paper.
Cutting printed sheets into two or more sections by means of cutting wheels on a press or folder.
An alphabet of SMALL CAPITAL LETTERS available in most roman type faces approximately the size of the lower case letters. Used in combination with larger capital letters.
The complete range of colours in the rainbow, from short wavelengths (blue) to long wavelengths (red).
A book bound with wires in spiral form inserted through holes punched along the binding side.
In page layout and printing, any two facing pages of a book, magazine, or other publication.
In printing presses, an attachment designed to remove the static electricity from the paper to avoid ink set-off and trouble with feeding the paper.
In photomechanics, the procedure of multiple exposure using the same image by stepping it in position according to a predetermined layout or program.
A proofreader's mark, written in the margin, signifying that copy marked for corrections should remain as it was.
Paper or other material to be printed.
Appearance changing attributes applied to text in a page layout program to create a stylized font. ie. using manual bold or italics changes a font's appearance. The bold or italic font itself must be used to maintain these characteristics through a RIP.
The weight in pounds of a ream (500 sheets) of paper cut to the standard size (17" x 22") for business papers (bond, ledger, mimeograph and duplicator): e.g. 20 pounds. Similar to basis weight of other grades of paper.
In photomechanics, exposure from a second negative or flat superimposed on an exposed image of a previous negative or flat.
In printing inks, the property of cohesion between particles; the separation force on ink needed for proper transfer and trapping on multicolour presses. A tacky ink has high separation forces and can cause surface picking or splitting of weak papers.
TAGGED IMAGE FILE FORMATE (TIFF)
A file format for exchanging bitmapped images (usually scans) between applications.
The body matter of a page or book, as distinguished from the headings.
These printers use a transfer sheet that carries ink in contact with the paper or transparency, and a heated printhead driven by digital data that touches the transfer sheet to transfer images to the right points on the page.
See Tagged Image File Format.
In photography, Various even tone areas (strengths) of a solid colour.
In photography, A thin, translucent paper placed over artwork (mostly mechanicals) for protection; used to indicate colour break and corrections.
The specification of acceptable variations in register, density, dot size, plate or paper thickness, concentration of chemicals and other printing parameters.
Imaging material used in electrophotography and some off-set proofing systems. In inks, dye used to tone printing inks, especially black. toning See scum.
A printing ink which does not conceal the colour beneath. Process inks are transparent so that they will blend to form other colours.
To exchange the position of a letter, word or line with another letter, word or line. In prepress, refers to how much overprinting colours overlap to eliminate white lines between colours in printing.
Refers to how much overprinting colours overlap to eliminate white lines between colours in printing.
In printing, marks placed on the copy to indicate the edge of the page.
In printing presses, a device for stopping or tripping the press when more than one sheet attempts to feed into the grippers.
In composition, a printer's tool calibrated in picas and points used for type measurement.
In multicolour presses, refers to the combination of inking, plate and impression operations to print each colour. A 4-colour press has 4 printing units each with its own inking, plate and impression functions.
In printing, two-up, three-up, etc., refers to imposition of material to be printed on a larger size sheet to take advantage of full press capacity.
In photography, A thin, protective coating applied to a printed sheet for protection or appearance. Also, in inkmaking, it can be all or part of the ink vehicle.
In papermaking, a toothy finish which is relatively absorbent for fast ink penetration.
In printing, a colour with a yellowish or reddish cast.
The process of cleaning the rollers, form or plate, and sometimes the ink fountain of a printing press.
Printing plate with silicone rubber coating in non-image areas, that is printed on an offset press without dampening solution.
In offset, printing on a press using special waterless plates and no dampening system,.
In composition, a single word in a line by itself, ending a paragraph, or starting a page, frowned upon in good typography.
A continuous double series of wire loops run through punched slots along the binding side of a booklet.
WITH THE GRAIN
Folding or feeding paper into a press parallel to the grain of the paper.
A typewriter connected to a computerized recording medium to input, edit and output data.
WORK AND TUMBLE
To print one side of a sheet of paper then turn it over from gripper to back using the same side guide and plate to print the second side.
WORK AND TURN
To print one side of a sheet of paper, then turn it over from left to right and print the second side using the same gripper and plate but opposite side guide.
Paper having a uniform unlined surface and a soft smooth finish.
Hue of a subtractive primary and a 4-colour process ink. It reflects red and green and absorbs blue light.